OCMock Test Origami
This article assumes the reader is familiar with Xcode 5 testing environment using XCTest, BDD style Kiwi or another iOS testing framework.
What is mocking ? Paper tigers, mostly
When unit testing, it’s imperative to instantiate as little concrete components as possible to keep tests short, fast, and preserve unit isolation. In a modern Object Oriented system, the component under test will likely have several object dependencies. Instead of instantiating dependencies as concrete classes, we use mocks. Mocks are ‘fake’ objects with pre-defined behavior to stand-in for concrete objects during testing. The component under test does not know the difference! With mocks, a component can be tested with confidence that it behaves as designed within a larger system.
Common mock use cases
(* note, these examples use OCMock 2 syntax)
To start, here’s a simple example which explains the general stubbing grammar in OCMock :
This contrived example first creates a mock jalopy from the class Car. Next, it stubs out the method goFaster: to return the NSString @”75kph” . The stubbing syntax may seem a litle weird at first, but this is the general idea :
ourMockObject stub] whatItShouldReturn ] method:
One very important note: , notice the usage of [OCMArg any] . When specifying a method which takes parameters, the mock will return the value specified by andReturn: only when the method is invoked with the provided parameters. The method [OCMArg any] tells the stub to fire for any parameter value. In the example, an invocation of
Would not trigger the stub because the last parameter units: does not match “kph”
OCMock will find class methods on the mock instance as long as there is not an instance method with the same name. In the event of same named methods, employ the classMethod method:
Types of mocks - niceMock, partialMock
OCmock provides several diffent types of mocks, each with their specific use case.
Any mock created in this fashion :
Is what I call a ‘vanilla’ mock. Vanilla mocks will raise an exception if an un-stubbed method is invoked. This can get a tedious as every single method called during the mock’s lifecycle must be stubbed. (more on stubbing in the next section)
If stubbing out many methods isn’t your thing, use a ‘nice’ mock. Nice mocks are polite and do not raise an exception if an unstubbed method is invoked.
The last type of mock is a ‘partial’ mock. When an unstubbed method is invoked, that method call is forwarded onto the actual object. That’s technically cheating with mocks, but can be useful when there are aspects of the class which don’t lend themselves well to stubbing.
Verify method was or wasn’t called
Verifying a method was or was not called is easy. This can be accomplished by expect , reject and verify methods :
The verify method will throw an exception if the method was not called. If you’re using XCTest, wrap the verify call within an XCTAssertNotThrow . Reject works the same way, but will throw when the method is called on the mock. Just like when stubbing, the selector and arguments passed to verify must match those passed by the caller. Use [OCMArg any] to make things easier.
Dealing with block arguments
Block callback parameters can also be handled by OCMock. Block callbacks are common in networking code, database code, or anywhere async operations are plentiful. For this example, consider the following method :
In this example, we have a method which downloads weather data for a given zip and delegates the downloaded dictionary into a block callback. To test, let’s pass pre-defined weather data to test callback handling. It’s also advisable to test failure scenarios; you never know what can come from the network!
The general idea here is reletively simple, even though it’s implementation requires some explanation:
This mock uses the ‘andDo’ method which accepts an NSInvocation argument. An NSInvocation object represents an ‘objectivetified’ representation of a method invocation. Through this NSinvocation object, it is possible to intercept the block parameter passed to our function.
Declare a block parameter with the same method signature as the one in our test method.
NSInvocation instance method ‘getArgument:atIndex:’ assigns the block parameter passed to the original function to our locally declared block variable. **Note : ** in Objective-C, the first two parameters passed to any function are ‘self’ and ‘_cmd.’ This is a little feature of the runtime and something to consider when grabbing parameters by index from an NSInvocation.
Finally, pass the callback a pre-defined dictionary.
Hopefully this article and examples have clarified some of the most commons uses of OCMock. The OCMock site: http://ocmock.org/features/ is a the best reference for everything in the OCMock world.
Mocking can be tedious but is necessary to fully test a modern, OO system. If a dependency graph is difficult to test with mocks, this is an indication the design may need to be re-considered.
Another great OCMock article
Making fun of things with OCMock